Assignment 6

Samson Covatch

Biblical Interpretation / Assignment 6

Dr. Wesley Hill

Discuss how many of these presuppositions may lie behind Peter’s use of Psalm 16. Assuming Peter believed several or all of these things, how might they have enabled him to interpret Psalm 16 the way he did?

We see that Peter is understanding the Corporate Solidarity of Christ with that of the Davidic rule. Since David was the king of the Israelites he would represent all of his people and likewise Jesus is in this Davidic fulfillment.

Because our hope is in the resurrection Peter sees this as a future truth and the reality of God historically doing what He has promised to do. Although I find this Correspondence in history harder to see, I still think Peter has it in mind for all Israel.

With question of the arrival of the age of eschatological fulfilment I think this is obviously in mind. The understanding of the resurrection was an end times understanding and I don’t think it would be hard for us to think in the same way if we saw a resurrection. Our minds would immediately move to eschatology and perhaps a reinterpreting of scripture to fit with our current experience.

In light of the leading of the Holy Spirit Peter is able to see the christology in the Scriptures as we do. Whereas prior it was harder to see what God was doing, after the cross we have the ability to look back through Christ to see what God had done and that the fingerprints of Jesus are all through God’s word.

Assignment 5

Samson Covatch

Biblical Interpretation / Assignment 5

Dr. Wesley Hill

Assuming “Markan priority” (i.e., that Mark’s Gospel was written first) and that Luke has his reasons for differing from Matthew, provide brief answers for the following questions:

Which of the accounts seem to parallel each other most closely?

Matthew and Luke in length and most content.

What are the major divergences between the accounts?

The use of the name Satan is only used in Mark and Matthew. Jesus is led by the Spirit in Matthew and Luke but immediately driven by the Spirit in Mark. Matthew and Luke have Jesus tempted by the devil, Mark by Satan Matt & Mk have angels ministering Lk does not. Matt and Lk have a discourse where Mk does not.

Between Matthew and Luke

Deut 8:3 quoted in full by Matt, only part by Luke After the bread temptation Lk and Matt order the next two temptations differently Matt refers to the Holy city while Lk names Jerusalem Matt speaks of the glory of the kingdoms shown where Lk describes a “moment in time” then their glory. Only Lk claims the devil has control of the kingdoms that were given to him and he has the power to give them to who he wills. Matt refers to the devil as Satan to cast him away by saying “Begone, Satan!”. Lk has the devil leaving on his own accord after every temptation had ended.

If Luke knew Matthew’s Gospel, how then do we explain his divergence from Matthew?

Luke stated, “1 Now many have undertaken to compile an account of the things that have been fulfilled among us, 2 like the accounts passed on to us by those who were eyewitnesses and servants of the word from the beginning. 3 So it seemed good to me as well, because I have followed all things carefully from the beginning, to write an orderly account for you, most excellent Theophilus, 4 so that you may know for certain the things you were taught.” (Lk 1:1-4 NET). He was more thorough than Mathew in what he thinks were important details.

Can you see any reason for him to make changes to Matthew’s version?

To save space by not quoting the whole of Deut 8:3 and to foreshadow the devil returning for the ultimate defeat.

Assignment 4

Samson Covatch

BI500 Assignment 4

Dr. Wesley Hill

The word flesh is used fourteen times in the book of Galatians in twelve verses. Galatians 2:20; 3:3; 4:23, 29; 5:13, 16, 17, 19, 24; and 6:8, 12, 13.

On the surface the word “flesh” is translated according to the english equivalent, but the intent of Paul’s meaning can vary. The most obvious way in which to understand this word is in the corporal sense of our physicality. The material part of our being that displays outward sin and outward signs of an inward grace. In this sense “flesh” is a neutral medium that makes up part of our being as exampled in 2:20; 5:13, 16, 17, 19, 24.

Another understanding is within the phrase “by the flesh” as we see in 3:3; 6:12 - 13, that Paul sees as a means by which we identify our kinship for national identity with a particular group. The understanding here is that my relationship to God is not through Christ but through a group associated with God. My flesh is used in this way an identifying marker that I did and not on what Christ has done.

Flesh can be seen in a more negative way in 4:23, 29; 6:8, in that the misplaced confidence is likened to being born of a slave woman as opposed to being born of a free woman in faith. The focus is on the unnatural use of the flesh as a means toward making oneself just before God.

Assignment 2

Samson Covatch

Biblical Interpretation / Assignment 2

Dr. Wesley Hill

Write a brief paragraph on each of the following contexts for Exodus chapter 20, indicating why those contexts are important for understanding the chapter.

The immediately surrounding section of Exodus (i.e., how does Exodus 20 relate to Exodus 19 and 21ff?);

The surrounding sections show us that what Moses receives is from God and not from man. By giving the ten commandments in such a way as Exodus 19 describes we can be assured it is from God directly. Furthermore, the expounding of countercultural lifestyle is then elaborated on in Exodus 21. Obedience to the ten commandments is not to be taken as a one and done assignment at a particular place, but rather a lifestyle of fairness and obedience that mirrors God’s character.

The book of Exodus as a whole (i.e., how does Exodus 20 fit within the entirety of the book of Exodus?);

Israel went from being under enslavement with Pharoah as their master, who was claiming to be a god, to freedom in serving YHWH as their master who proved to be the only true and living God. As a master YHWH is establishing His rule and what He requires from His people. As a people of God, Israel is to be think and behave in a particular way. We too are called to know God and understand our relationship with Him.

The Pentateuch as a whole (i.e., what role does Exodus 20 play within the first five books of the Old Testament? - be sure to provide at least one other specific verse or chapter reference in your answer);

As a covenant people with YHWH, Israel is expounding on what it means to be follow the Law. This redemptive relationship is demonstrated through following commands that may seem arbitrary outside the context of the Pentateuch. The relationship is not only vertical, as indicated by the first four commandments, but also horizontal as well, as indicated by the final six. The way we think about and treat each other is a reflection of the way we think about and ultimately treat God. Deuteronomy 5 reiterated the Ten Commandments to show the importance of the focus the Israelites are to have. I find this placement interesting because it comes right after Deuteronomy 4:2, “Do not add a thing to what I command you nor subtract from it, so that you may keep the commandments of the LORD your God that I am delivering to you.” (NET)

The entire Old Testament (i.e., what role does Exodus 20 in the whole Old Testament? Does it get referenced elsewhere…?);

The Commandments are the axiom by which the rest of the Old Testament judges and expounds on. Not just because of what they say, but because of what they are a reminder of. The story of the generation, degeneration, and regeneration of mankind. Exodus 20 is a reminder of even when times are at their hardest and everything seems lost, we can still have hope that God is true to His promises and He will see them to completion. The rediscovery of the centrality of God’s Law is seen in Ezra 7:10, “Now Ezra had dedicated himself to the study of the law of the Lord, to its observance, and to teaching its statutes and judgments in Israel.”

The entire Christian Bible (i.e., how does Exodus 20 fit within the entirety of Scripture, Old as well as New Testaments? Does it get referenced anywhere in New Testament specifically…?).

The ten commandments are either eluted to or directly related to in the New Testament. Jesus’ use of the ten commandments as the will of God shows that they are not a past concept to be meditated on, but a living eternal reality given to us. I found Brevard Childs book Exodus to be helpful in this understanding. By highlighting in his section, “The Decalogue and the New Testament,” we see insights in that, “Jesus simply quoted the ten commandments as the expressed will of God.” The way that Jesus addressed the rabbinic leaders was not engage in the question of what can the commandments mean, but instead what they do mean. Childs writes, “...behind all the laws lay the one will of God, the intent of which could be summarized in the command to love God and neighbor.” As Protestant Christians we like to get our theology direction from Paul’s body of work. Here we see him in agreement with Jesus from the letter to the Romans,

8 Owe no one anything, except to love one another, for the one who loves his neighbor has fulfilled the law. 9 For the commandments, “Do not commit adultery, do not murder, do not steal, do not covet,” (and if there is any other commandment) are summed up in this, “Love your neighbor as yourself.” 10 Love does no wrong to a neighbor. Therefore love is the fulfillment of the law. (Romans 13:8-10, NET)

To know the ten commandments is to know the will of God. For this reason we can see the central importance of knowing them and their relationship to scripture as a whole. Also, provide brief definitions of the following terms:

“Historical context.”

The environment in which a particular event or idea has taken place in order to understand the intent of the author and how to relate to those events to the present time.

“Literary context.”

The style of genre of writing used for properly interpreting any book, letter, poem, etc.

“Canonical context.”

Writings found inside or outside of the Canon of Scripture. Within the Canon, how the text relates to the rest of the Canon (i.e. the authorized collection of writings as inspired by God).

Assignment 1

Samson Covatch

Biblical Interpretation / Assignment 1

Dr. Wesley Hill

The Pentateuch - The first five books of the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible. Tanakh - The appropriate term to use for the Hebrew Scriptures that is derived from the Hebrew letters of its three components:

Torah (Pentateuch)

Nevi’im (Prophets)

Ketuvim (Writings)

Second Temple Judaism - Common designation for the Jewish traditions that flourished from the 4th century BCE to the destruction of the Temple by Roman forces in 70 CE.

Genre - A category of artistic, musical, or literary composition characterized by a particular style, form or content.

Hermeneutics - The branch of knowledge that deals with interpretation, especially of the Bible or literary texts.

New Testament - The second part of the Christian canon consisting of twenty-seven books

The Synoptic Problem - The literary relationships between the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke.

Epistle - epistole, “a letter”; from epistello, “to send to” Exegesis - Critical explanation or interpretation of a text or portion of a text, especially of the Bible.

Allegory - A story, poem, or picture that can be interpreted to have hidden meanings.

BI500 Assignment 3

Is 1 Corinthians 15:28 similar to any other verses in asserting the subordination or submission of Jesus to God?

There are other verses that lead us to think, on the surface, that Jesus is subordinate to God in his being, but only if a few qualifications are met. If we think of God simply as God the Father, a unitarian model, and not, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, a trinitarian model, the type of subordinationalism we default to would be ontological. We find this expressed in places such as 1 Cor 3:23; 11:3; and 8:5-6. Within a hierarchical structure we would be forced into adopting a dynamic monarchianism that would deny the unity, or a bi-theism that denies the exclusivity of monotheism.




In 1995 I found myself in Toronto, Canada at Second City with my family. The improv comedy group had a unique twist in that you could find yourself directly involved in the performance. If you weren’t back from intermission promptly, you would become part of the show and had to play your role in order to return as a spectator. This same twist is what you will discover in The Drama of Scripture by Craig G. Bartholomew and Michael W. Goheen.